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Wednesday, 15-Nov-2006 19:06 Email | Share | Bookmark

Museum of Gorgan
Gorgan (Persian: گرگان) is the capital of the Golestan Province, Iran. It is approximately 400 km from Tehran. It had an estimated population of 241,177 in 2005.[1]

The city is named as Hyrcania, Hyrcani or Hyrcana in ancient Greek records, which comes from Old Persian Varkâna -- "Land of the Wolf". Although modern Gorgan is only a city and county (sharing the same name), ancient Hyrcania was the name of a region on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (encompassing present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). In modern times the city used to be known as Astarabad as of 1937. Gorgan is Arabicized to Jorjan.

Some 150km east of Gorgan is the famous Golestan National Park. The city has a regional airport and several universities.
The wide Dasht-e-Gorgan (the Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city of Gorgan and is geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude and covers an area of about 1,700 square kilometres.

In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is 18.2 degrees Celsius and the annual rainfal is 556
Ancient history
Main article: Hyrcania
The name "Hyrcania" is the ancient Greek record of the local name in Old Persian name Varkâna.

Hyrcania became part of the persian empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) - the first emperor the first persian empire dynasty - or Cambyses (530-522 BC). It was conquered by Arabs in 8th century and by Mongols in 13th century.

Gorgan (and in general, Golestan province), has a world famous carpet and rug industry, made by Turkmans. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Boxârâ (Buchara). Jajim carpets are also crafted in this province.
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