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Thursday, 18-May-2006 10:06 Email | Share | Bookmark
Persepolis - Part 1

 
 
 
 
Terrace
Terrace
 
 
 
Stairs of All Nations
4 Steps ( Wind fire soil water)
 
 
 
 
 
Gate of All Nations
 
Gate of All Nations
Gate of All Nations
Apadana
Apadana
Gate of All Nations
Gate of All Nations
Gate of All Nations
 
Gate of All Nations
 
 
 
The ancient inscription in the gate, which is known as XPa
 
 
 
 
 
 
16½ meters high. The capitals had the form of a double bull.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Army road
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iran Air's sign
 
Hall of 32 columns
 
 
 
 
Unfinished gate
Unfinished gate
Clamp two stones togther by iron
 
 
Hall of 32 columns
The persian Empire
4 capitals of persia
Persepolis (Old Persian Pârsa, modern Takht-e Jamshid): Greek name of one of the capitals of the ancient Achaemenid empire, founded by king Darius the Great (522-486 BCE), forty-three kilometers downstream from the capital of Cyrus the Great, Pasargadae. It was destroyed in the spring of 330 by Alexander the Great. Five building phases can be discerned
First period: Darius I the Great (518-490)
* Terrace (building inscription)
* Apadana eastern stairs (faces of people)
* Treasury
Second period: Darius I / Xerxes (490-480)
* Taçara, 'winter palace' (or Palace of Darius
* Xerxes' gate ("Gate of all nations)
* Stairway
* Apadana), northern stairs (relief)
Third period: Xerxes (480-470)
^ Hadiš (Palace of Xerxes)
* Harem * Tripylon or Council Hall
* "Palace D" (??)
Fourth period: Artaxerxes I
* Hall of hundred columns * Palace of Artaxerxes I ("Palace H")
* Garrison quarters
Fifth period: fourth century
* Tomb of Artaxerxes II
* Palace of Artaxerxes III ("Palace G")
* Hall of thirty-two columns
* Tomb of Artaxerxes III (map 10)
* Army road and Unfinished gate

* Unfinished tomb
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Stairs of All Nations
The construction of the large Stairs of All Nations was ordered by king Xerxes (486-465), the successor of the founder of Persepolis, Darius I the Great. Originally, the main access was in the south; now, one had to ascend to the terrace from the west.
These are the stairs themselves. The individual stairs are very low. Perhaps this was to enable horsemen to climb to the terrace, but another, more likely explanation is that it was because you were forced to walk upright. The first building one encountered upstairs, was the Gate of All Nations. It inspired the Parthian architects of the sanctuary of Anahita in Konkobar.
Gate of All Nations
The construction of the Stairs of All Nations and the Gate of All Nations, here seen from the west, were ordered by king Xerxes (486-465), the successor of the founder of Persepolis, Darius I the Great. Originally, the main access was in the south; now, one had to ascend to the terrace from the west.
Like Gate R in Pasargadae, the entrance of the Gate of All Nations was protected by bulls (front) and these mythological creatures, called lamassu's, bulls with the head of a bearded man. These bull-men originated in Babylonia and Assyria, but the Persians adopted them. The general idea behind them is that they warded off evil. This picture is from the east.
The entire monument, seen from the southeast. It was an enormous construction (24¾ meters long) with two large doors in the west and east (extreme left, and right) and a hall between them. A third gate was to the south. From here, one could walk to the Apadana.
In the mid-fourth century, the main exit was no longer to the Apadana but to the Hall of hundred columns; when the palaces were sacked by Alexander the Great, Persian artisans were building the Army road that was to connect these two buildings.
The first westerner to visit Persepolis and make scientific drawings was Cornelis de Bruijn in the winter of 1704. He inscribed his name in the Gate. Later travelers did the same, but not all of them had the energy to work a day or two. At the beginning of the twentieth century, another Dutchman, Maurits Wagenvoort, left a careless graffito and made a photo to prove that he had traveled in the footsteps of De Bruijn. His name is hardly recognizable , so he "improved" the photo when he published his account
The ancient inscription in the gate, which is known as XPa. The crucial line is:
This Gate of All Nations I [=Xerxes] built. Much else that is beautiful was built in this Persepolis, which I built and my father built. Whatever has been built and seems beautiful - all that we built by the favor of Ahuramazda
the terrace of Persepolis, seen from the southwest. This enormous artificial platform measures 450x300 meters and the central part (to the left on this photo) is 18 meters high. It belongs to the first building phase of the city, which is usually dated to 518-490. The Treasury and the Apadana belong to the same period.
Persepolis is built on the spur of a rock called Mount Mercy. This picture shows how the original rock (with the diagonal layers) was cut away and how the terrace, made of square blocks, was built on top of it. The inner core of the terrace was made of boulders, pieces of rock, and other stones

The Unfinished gate
, seen from the southeast . Construction was probably started by king Artaxerxes III Ochus (358-338), and continued by his successors Artaxerxes IV Arses (338-336) and Darius III Codomannus (336-330).
If it had been finished, visitors would have entered Persepolis through the Gate of all nations, would have proceeded through the Army road, crossed this gate, and had reached the Hall of hundred columns. However, the monument was still unfinished when the Macedonian king Alexander the Great captured Persepolis in the first weeks of 330 BCE.
Today, hardly anything survives, except for one pair of unfinished lamassu's in the south (a lamassu is a bull with the head of a bearded man). This picture shows the Unfinished Gate and, to the left, the Gate of all nations
By :Livius.


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