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Thursday, 4-May-2006 16:53 Email | Share | Bookmark
Driving along borders

15Km to Turkey
Ararat mountain( Turkey)
Urartian citadel of Sangar
Eivane farhad
Turkey: view from Iran
Aras river( border between Iran and Arran)
Aras river
Aras lake
Rep of Azerbaijan( Arran)
Iranian lands beyond borders
Rep of azerbaijan
Separated lands from mother country
leaving Aras with sorrow
St Stepanous Cathedral near Jolfa
These 3 photos are not mine
i didn't have enough time for visiting this place
Maku is loacted in the west of Iran some 15km from Turkish border. There is not much to see in Maku but it is a good place to stay if you want to cross the border to Dogubeyazit in Turkey.
Maku is located in a spectacular mountain gorge and you the hills around are good frop hiking. Be careful though: you are close to the border and crossing by accident would be one of the more stupid ways to get yourself killed.
10 km to the west of town is the small Urartian citadel of Sangar. In town you can visit the Maku Palace which dates back to Ghajar period. It is presently a museum but it used to be the house of a local governor until 1974.
Ararat (ăr'ərăt) , Turkish Ağri Daği, name of two mountains, Little Ararat (12,877 ft/3,925 m) and Great Ararat (16,945 ft/5,165 m), E Turkey, near the Iranian and Armenian borders. The tradition that Mt. Ararat is the resting place of Noah's ark is based on a misreading of Gen. 8.4, which properly reads “upon the mountains of Ararat,” indicating a country or region. The land or the kingdom of Ararat (fl. c.9th–7th cent. B.C.), called in Assyrian Urartu, was situated between the river Araks and the lakes Van and Rezaiyeh. It included all the land later called Armenia. Its language, written in cuneiform, has no relation to any known language, except perhaps to the Horite.

Under Fath Ali Shah, Iran went to war against Russia, which was expanding from the north into the Caucasus Mountains, an area of historic Iranian interest and influence. Iran suffered major military defeats during the war. Under the terms of the Treaty of Golestan in 1813, Iran recognized Russia's annexation of Georgia and ceded to Russia most of the north Caucasus region. A second war with Russia in the 1820s ended even more disastrously for Iran, which in 1828 was forced to sign the Treaty of Turkmanchai acknowledging Russian sovereignty over the entire area north of the Aras River (territory comprising present-day Armenia and Republic of Azerbaijan).
The Turkmanchai treaty (also written Turkemanchay, Turkamanchay, and Turkmanchay) is a treaty by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, lost many of its northern territories to Imperial Russia after its defeat in 1828 at the end of the Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828.

The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828 (5th of Shaban, 1243 in the Islamic calendar), by Haj Mirza Abol-hasan Khan and Asef o-dowleh, chancellor of Fath Ali Shah from Persia's side, and General Ivan Paskievich representing Imperial Russia.

As was the case for the Gulistan Treaty, Persia was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no other alternative after Abbas Mirza's defeat. The Russian general had threatened Fath Ali Shah to conquer Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed.

By this treaty:

1-By Article 4 of the treaty, Persia loses sovereignty over Yerevan (current capital of Armenia), Nakhichevan, Talysh, Ordubad, and Mughan regions (now part of Azerbaijan Republic), in addition to all lands annexed by Russia in the Gulistan Treaty.
2 -The Aras river is assigned the new borderline between Persia and Imperial Russia, from "from Ararat ghal'eh to the outlet of the river at Astara
3 -By Article 6 of the treaty, Persia promised to pay Russia 10 Koroor in Gold (in 1828 currency).
4- By Article 8 of the treaty, Persian ships lose full rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and her coasts, henceforth given to Russia.
5 -Persia recognizes Capitulation rights for Russians in Persia.
6 -By Article 10, Russia gains the right to send consulate envoys to anywhere in Persia it wishes
7- By Article 13, Exchange of POWs.
By Article 10, Persia is forced to sign economic treaties with Russia as Russia specifies.
By Article 7 of the treaty, Russia promises to support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia when Fath Ali Shah dies. (This never materialised as the son died before his father.)
Persia officially apologizes for breaking its promises made in the Gulistan Treaty.
By Article 15, Fath Ali Shah promises not to prosecute any Khanate secessionist movements in the Azerbaijan region.
Today, Iran officially sees this and the preceding Gulistan Treaty as the most humiliating treaties signed in the country's millennia-old history. The treaty is the reason many Iranians consider Fath Ali Shah to be one of Iran's most incompetent rulers

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