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|Wednesday, 20-Jun-2007 17:16
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Herat, Ariana(Afghanistan)- Fotos by Yusef My Azari Friend
Afġānistān, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Persian: جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان), is a landlocked country that is located in the heart of Asia. It is variously designated within Central or South Asia, as well as the Middle East. It has religious, ethno-linguistic, and geographic links with most of its neighbours. It is largely bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, Kashmir in the north-east and the People's Republic of China in the far northeast. The name Afghanistan means the "Land of Afghans".
Afghanistan is a culturally mixed nation, a crossroads between the East and the West, and has been ancient focal point of trade and migration. It has an important geostrategical location, connecting South Asia, Central Asia and Middle East together. During its long history, the land seen various invaders and conquerors, while on the other hand, local entities invaded the surrounding vast regions to form empires to themselves. Ahmad Shah Durrani created a large empire in the middle of the eighteenth century, with its capital at Kandahar. Subsequently, most of its territories were ceded to former neighboring countries. In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in "The Great Game" played between the United Kingdom and Tsarist Russia. On August 19, 1919, following the third Anglo-Afghan war, the country regained full independence from the United Kingdom over its foreign affairs.
Since the late 1970s, Afghanistan has suffered continuous and brutal civil war, which included foreign interventions in the form of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the 2001 conflict with the US in which the ruling Taliban government was toppled. In December 2001, the United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). This force, composed of NATO troops, has been involved in assisting the government of President Hamid Karzai in establishing authority across the nation. In 2005, the United States and Afghanistan signed a strategic partnership agreement committing both nations to a long-term relationship. In the meantime, about 30 billion US dollars have also been provided by the international community for the reconstruction of the country.
Herat (Persian: هرات) is one the 34 Provinces of Afghanistan; together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces, it makes up the north-western region of the country. Its primary city and administrative capital is also named Herat.
The province was one of the first major battlegrounds in the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and remained an active area of guerrilla warfare throughout, with local military commander and mujahideen Ismail Khan leading resistance to Soviet rule from 1979 until the Soviet withdrawal in 1989 (see the article on the city of Herat for further details). When the Soviets withdrew, Ismail Khan became the governor of the province, a position he remained until the Taliban took control of the province in 1995. Following the ousting of the Taliban in 2001 by the US and coalition forces as well as the Afghan Northern Alliance, Khan once again became governor of Herat. (See U.S. invasion of Afghanistan).
The province was ruled more or less autocratically by Khan, despite some attempts by the interim central government (headed by Hamid Karzai) to weaken the power of local strongmen. Khan's rule has engendered some controversy, though Herat has remained largely free of the violence that has plagued some other regions of post-Taliban Afghanistan.
In March 2003, the Endowment and Islamic Affairs Department of the provincial government began steps to restrict what it saw as un-Islamic vices, on March 1 banning the sale and public screening of movies and the performance of music in public, and on March 5 banning the viewing of movies entirely, as well as the possession and sale of satellite dishes.
Meaning and origin of the name "Afghanistan"
The last part of the name, -stān, is an Indo-Iranian suffix for "place", prominent in many languages of the region.
The term "Afghanistan", meaning the "Land of Afghans", was mentioned by the sixteenth century Mughal Emperor Babur in his memoirs, referring to the territories south of Kabul that were inhabited by Pashtuns (called "Afghans" by Babur).
Regarding the modern nation "Afghanistan", Frederick Engels writes in 1857:
“ Afghanistan, an extensive country of Asia, north-west of India. It lies between Persia and the Indies, and in the other direction between the Hindu Kush and the Indian Ocean. It formerly included the Persian provinces of Khorassan and Kohistan, together with Herat, Beluchistan, Cashmere, and Sinde, and a considerable part of the Punjab. ”
Until the 19th century, the name was only used for the traditional lands of the Pashtuns, while the kingdom as a whole was known as the Kingdom of Kabul, as mentioned by the British statesman and historian Mountstuart Elphinstone. Other parts of the country were at certain periods recognized as independent kingdoms, such as the Kingdom of Balkh in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
With the expansion and centralization of the country, Afghan authorities adopted and extended the name "Afghanistan" to the entire kingdom, after its English translation, "Afghanland", had already appeared in various treaties between British Raj and Qajarid Persia, referring to the lands that were subject to the Pashtun Barakzai Dynasty of Kabul. "Afghanistan" as the name for the entire kingdom was mentioned in 1857 by Frederick Engels. It became the official name when the country was recognized by the world community in 1919, after regaining its full independence from the British, and was confirmed as such in the nation's 1923 constitution
پس از سقوط صفویان هرات مدتی در اشغال طایفهٔ ابدالی بود و به دست نادر شاه افشار افتاد. پس از مرگ نادر افغانها بر هرات مسلط شدند. در دوران معروف به بازی بزرگ ماموران بریتانیایی در هرات فعال بودند و از جدایی آن از حکومت ایران پشتیبانی میکردند. در ۱۲۴۹ ه.ق. عباس میرزا از سوی فتحعلی شاه قاجار مامور پس گرفتن هرات از افغانها شد . مرگ عباس میرزا در راه مشهد این کار را ناتمام گذاشت. محمد شاه قاجار نیز کوششی برای فتح هرات کرد که ناکام ماند. در زمان ناصرالدین شاه قاجار٬ دوست محمدخان، حاکم کابل و قندهار هرات را گرفت. نیروهای ناصرالدین شاه تحت فرمان حسامالسلطنه هرات را محاصره کردند و در سال ۱۲۷۳ این شهر را گرفتند. با مداخلات بریتانیا در جنوب ایران و بحرانی شدن روابط ایران و بریتانیا طی عهدنامهای که در ۱۲۷۳ ه.ق. (۱۸۵۷ میلادی) در پاریس بین نماینده ایران و سفیر بریتانیا امضا شد قرار شد که نیروهای بریتانیا از بنادر و جزایر جنوب ایران خارج شوند و در عوض ایران نیز سپاهیان خود را از هرات فراخواند و استقالال افغانستان را به رسمیت بشناسد. پس از جنگ هرات بسال ۱۲۴۹ ه .ق. قسمتهای از شرق هریرود به بعد (شامل هرات) به افغانستان ضميمه گرديد.
در تاريخ معاصر افغانستان هرات از استبداد داخلی، تحجر، تعصب و تجاوزات خارجی بيش تر از ديگران رنج کشيد. هرات سراسر سده نوزدهم را در ميان کشمکشهای سرداران سدوزایی و محمدزایی و بازی بزرگ سپری نمود
Afghanestan was part of ancient Ariana Land that involved east borders of Great Iran. These borders were the place that the culture of Iran and ancient China met each other.
On the relieves of Takht-e Jamshid, the ancient Iranian royal graves, there are many carve stones that represent the people of east part of Iranian Imperial bought their gifts to the King of Kings of Iran, and declared their obedience to Elamites.
During the history, Afghanestan had been the part of Iran; Afghanian people had to review their history up to 19th century beside the history of Iran. When Iran was occupied by Arabs, the first whispers of independentism (nationalism) were started from Ariana Land; the people of this area draw out Persian culture and literature from the ashes of Arab dominance, and once again Persian literature was blazing.
Afghanestan and Tajikistan were the most important and main part of Iran. We know them as "our historical friends" who have the same history as we do.
Unfortunately, as I read a lot about the history of Britain, English politicians found the way to save their weak, small, and overcast Island by exploitation of east nations. When this small Island, Britain, attacked by its neighbours, they provided their Navy (Naval Forces) to reach the east. The first country that was their object of attention was India. So, as Iran and India had the same borders, English politicians decided to make Iran weak and domain on it. The first favourite place for them were the east part of Iran.
At the beginning of 18th AD, when the Safavid kings became weak and their dynasty began to decline, the civil wars were started in Iran. The people of Ghandhar and the residents of east (of Iran) moved to the capital of Iran, which was Isfahan in those days. So Iran was in a state of chaos. England (the Great Britain) acted greedily and by causing disagreements and disunities made much self-government in Iran. But the smart and clever Iranian and people of those areas turned their faces to these deceitful foreigners; the contemporary history of Afghanestan reminds the courageous resistance of east Iranians.
So that's why Iranian has a historical pessimistic and cynical view about England that has been lost up to the contemporary history of Iran. They (English politicians) meddled in Iran's History, oil, etc.
Up to 1856, the west part of Afghanestan. such as Harat, was part of Iran. The government of Iran, in those years, oppressed the regional rebels, but dismembering and exterminating Iran was the best choice and solution for England. Therefore they occupied southern horbors of Iran, such as Booshehr, and gave an ultimatum to evacuate the Herat region. From that year, the capital of the Great Khorasan, which was a big province of east Iran set apart from its homeland. The Afghanies separated from their brothers and their history fulfilled with misery and sadness. Many wars were imposed on them, and unfortunately all of those wars were caused just for the benefits of the other countries exploitation. .
Many Afghanies leaved their country and started a very hard, unbearable, and imposed life in Pakistan and Iran. Their lower social Classes sought refuges in Iran and worked in lower and harder classes occupations, and lived at the countries of the cities. A few percentages of them were drawn to crime and as the government doesn't have any statistics about them, they are irresponsible about their action. But when we become familiar with them, we will find them kind, responsible, hard worker, and honest.
I myself respect them for their hard attempts in this country; But many of them don't have Passports and Visa, and illegally came Iran and unfortunately there is no precise statistics about them. The government of Iran have been expelling illegal immigrants. This is our rights to have a save country. So Afghanies people can come to our country, work here, leave here, but legally, in order to be responsible and accept the responsibilities of their actions; like the whole world.