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Thursday, 18-Jan-2007 18:31 Email | Share | Bookmark
Baku - Part 5


The Turkmanchai treaty (also written Turkemanchay, Turkamanchay, and Turkmanchay) is a treaty by which the Persian Empire, more commonly known today as Iran, divided the territory of Azerbaijan with Imperial Russia after its defeat in 1828 at the end of the Russo-Persian War, 1826-1828.
The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828 (5th of Shaban, 1243 in the Islamic calendar), by Haj Mirza Abol-hasan Khan and Asef o-dowleh, chancellor of Fath Ali Shah from Persia's side, and General Ivan Paskievich representing Imperial Russia.
As was the case for the Gulistan Treaty, Persia was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no alternative after Abbas Mirza's defeat. The Russian general had threatened Fath Ali Shah to conquer Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed.

By this treaty:
1 - By Article 4 of the treaty, Persia loses sovereignty over Yerevan (current capital of Armenia), Nakhichevan, Talysh, Ordubad, and Mughan regions (now part of Azerbaijan Republic), in addition to all lands annexed by Russia in the Gulistan Treaty.
2 - The Aras river is assigned the new borderline between Persia and Imperial Russia, from "from Ararat ghal'eh to the outlet of the river at Astara".
3 - By Article 6 of the treaty, Persia promised to pay Russia 10 Koroor in Gold (in 1828 currency).
4 - By Article 8 of the treaty, Persian ships lose full rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and her coasts, henceforth given to Russia.
6 -Persia recognizes Capitulation rights for Russians in Persia.
7- By Article 10, Russia gains the right to send consulate envoys to anywhere in Persia it wishes.
8 - By Article 13, Exchange of POWs.
9 - By Article 10, Persia is forced to sign economic treaties with Russia as Russia specifies.
By Article 7 of the treaty, Russia promises to support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia when Fath Ali Shah dies. (This never materialised as the son died before his father.)
10 -Persia officially apologizes for breaking its promises made in the Gulistan Treaty.
11- By Article 15, Fath Ali Shah promises not to prosecute any Khanate secessionist movements in the Azerbaijan region.

Today, Iran officially sees this and the preceding Gulistan Treaty as the most humiliating treaties signed in the country's millennia-old history. The treaty is the reason many Iranians consider Fath Ali Shah to be one of Iran's most incompetent rulers.

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